“Looking back at India’s first republic day”
India also known as ” *Bharat* ” is a union of States. India’s defining moment– the day it freed itself completely from the shackles of colonialism to become a truly sovereign state — had arrived 3 years after it gained independence.
Between 15th August 1947 and 26th January 1950 the Dominion of India was a constitutional monarchy with its King still being George VI and two governor generals Lord Mountbatten and C Rajagopalachari. Jawaharlal Nehru held office as Secretary for the state of union of India and governed the country through Government of India Act 1935. During this gradual transition phase the drafting committee of constituent assembly worked hard in drafting constitution for infant country and in 1949 they finished drafting world’s longest constitution with a solid foundation of justice, Liberty, equality unity, integrity and democracy as its leading values. The first chief guest at celebration of republic day was Indonesian president Sukarno.
Rajendra Prasad quoted *” it is a great day for our country India has had a long and chequered history; parts of it were cloudy and parts bright and sulit. At no period even during the most glorious errors of which we have record was this whole country brought under one constitution and one rule”.*
The own views of some eminent Indian leaders about Indian constitution is pertinent to be mentioned Gandhiji laid importance on wishes of the people to be reflected in Indian constitution.
Mr Nehru said the first task of constituent assembly is 2 free India through new constitution and had a social vision
But Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar warned off three possible dangers to the new born democracy 1. social economic inequalities
2. use of unconstitutional methods
3. the hero worship.
*Constitution as an instrument of social change*
India is now a Sovereign state the dominion status came to an end and India became a virtual Sovereign state. India’s other inse to socialism witnessed introduction of planning and nationalisation of heavy industries along with the banks. Socialistic measures have been taken to end poverty, inequality between men and women especially in wages, insecurity of old and orphans, widows, exploitation of workers, abolition of zamindari , land reforms, tenancy reforms etc.
Is a secular state that accords same status to all religions in the country and prohibits to make discrimination on the grounds of religion caste excetra it is a democratic republic has universal adult suffrage has been introduced who completes 18 years of age Indian women get rights to vote and contest elections.
The constitution guarantees to all the Indians a set of fundamental rights and also protected by the court during British rule bitter experience of people was no freedom of speech and expression, no formation of union, no holding meetings, no voicing against wrong which reverted after implementation of constitution. Hindu temples of public character open to all classes of the society as per article 25 2 b of Indian constitution. Minorities have been given protection by State for their language culture and education.
Some examples of the apps are are minimum wages act 1948, child labour prohibition act 1986, maternity benefit act 1961, equal remuneration act 1976 etc.
Free and compulsory education through to right to education act right to information act Lokpal act are important acts of parliament and they have a wider social impact.
Several amendments also brought revolution in the society justice Sikri in 2002 observe that amendments 1st, 4th, 17th, 24th, 25th, 26th, 29th, 34th, 42nd and 64th changed the socioeconomic scene. First amendment abolished zamindari an inserted article 31 (A) amendment of article 15 interest of educationally economically backward class. This changed the social economic status of the nation.
Role of judiciary has been a remarkable in the direction of social change and justice dispensing. Credit goes to the Indian constitution that despite the explicit mention of separation of the power the three branches of government namely legislature executive and judiciary are pulling up well together for service of the people of the country
Indians today are governed by two different ideologies their political ideal set in preamble of the constitution affirms *” *Life of Liberty equality and fraternity”*
* Their are social ideal embedded India religion denies them….
Indian constitution has survived the test of time and has shown is adaptability and dynamism. Towards conclusion one must admit that the success is achieved by the Indian constitution are many and grey areas are still there to overcome.
*Jay Bharat !!
Ashwini Jitendra Kamble
Krantijyoti Savitrimai Phule Samta Manch, Pune